The paper deals with the gender equality and participation in policy making with special reference to India and Afghanistan. Gender inequality is the most persistent and pervasive global problem of the 21st century militating against the attainment of sustainable development in patriarchal societies. Thus, the research focused on analyzing how society perceives the concept of gender equality, participation and women empowerment, factors that militate against the achievement of gender equality in the society and its role in sustainable development. In gathering information, the study based on theoretical concepts and also develop a framework based on an in-depth literature study. The paper ties the theoretical interpretation of current various knowledge sources used by farmers to the conceptual model system. Basically, in this paper, we have studied policies and review quality research papers on the topic gender equality and participation in policy making with special reference to India and Afghanistan. And the source of information gathers based on secondary information and interpret gathered information on basis of websites of government and organizations India and Afghanistan. The findings of this paper indicate that gender equality has positive economic consequences in decision-making, it improves gender participation in community development programmes and leads to healthy families and increased food productivity. When women are highly qualified, more responsible and less corruptible, this causes efficiency gains to emerge. The paper concluded that gender equality, participation and women empowerment are essential tools in the achievement of reduction of discrimination which help to increase efficiency and consequence to sustainable development in both countries India and Afghanistan.

Keywords: Gender Equality, Gender Participation, Policy Making, Afghanistan, India.